DS framework

FAO and WOCAT, building on LADA and WOCAT-DESIRE projects and relevant experiences, have developed a ‘methodological framework for decision support for mainstreaming and scaling out SLM’ which offers a detailed description of activities, tools and methods to be used to facilitate decision-making. The framework is applied by the 15 partner countries and adapted to their particular needs.

Phase A: Review and initial strategy and action plan

1.1 Operational strategy for mainstreaming SLM into national policy instruments in formulated

1.1.1 To develop an operational  strategy and mechanism for promoting decisions that facilitate the scaling out of SLM practices supported by mainstreaming SLM into main national decision making processes and policy instruments. Steps for the planning including consultation with FAO-WOCAT, may include:

a.) To identify national SLM objectives, barriers, impacts to achieve, and opportunities for scaling out SLM practices in line with existing national strategies and priorities and targets.

b.) To conduct a preliminary survey  of existing key decision making processes, policy instruments and potential partners that shall be targeted and integrated in the DS-SLM project implementation in order to  mainstream SLM at all levels within: 1. Policies and strategies;  2. Programmes and projects; 3. Financing and incentive mechanisms; 4. Territorial planning; and  5. Local decision-making processes.

c.) To outline a general strategy showing  HOW, WHO, WHERE and WHAT could  be done for each level of intervention, including the scope of project interventions at different levels, the scale and objectives of land use assessments, stakeholders to be involved, potential partnerships and expected results (according to national context, baseline and project resources  of each country).

1.1.2 To outline a general strategy showing  HOW, WHO, WHERE and WHAT could  be done for each level of intervention, including the scope of project interventions at different levels, the scale and objectives of land use assessments, stakeholders to be involved, potential partnerships and expected results (according to national context, baseline and project resources  of each country).

Phase B: Partnerships and capacity development

1.2 Operational strategy for SLM mainstreaming and scaling out is implemented 

1.2.1 National Inception Workshop providing an overview of existing tools and methods and identification of partners.

1.2.2 The implementation of the operational strategy is conducted throughout the project , mainly  trough setting up partnerships with policy instruments, strategies, programmes and financing mechanisms  at each level of intervention (national level, landscape level). See results in section 2.5, 5.2, and 6.1.

Phase C: Scaling out through policies, territorial strategies, incentives, financing mechanisms

1.3 Operational mechanism and strategy  for wider scaling out is formulated 

1.3.1 To formulate a strategy for wider scaling out of selected best SLM practices

1.3.2 To elaborate a programme/ project proposals  portfolio for further  implementation and scaling out and mainstreaming activities 

1.3.3 To organize a subnational meeting or workshop with selected subregional institutions with the following objectives:

a.) To provide a synthesis of the DS-SLM  project findings.

b.) To identify how to further integrate assessment results into national and subnational level policy instruments for scaling out practices and mainstreaming SLM.

c.) To formulate a strategy for wider scaling out.

1.4  Partnerships for scaling out best practices are established

1.4.1  To establish partnerships with key national and territorial institutions for scaling out best SLM practices and mainstreaming SLM into national and territorial planning processes, strategies, programmes, projects, incentive and financing mechanisms, microfinance mechanisms, etc. 

2.1 Regional/national training is conducted for national capacity building

2.1.1  To prepare training materials and organise and conduct a regional or national technical training on LADA -WOCAT and other relevant tools and methods, with support as required from the regional and global level.

2.1.2  To identify existing national information/ material  (LUS maps, land cover maps, statistics, data,  tools and case studies/experiences relevant to DLDD, LUS/LMS) and to identify needs and gaps at national and subnational levels.

2.2 National Land use/Land Management System (LUS/LMS) map is elaborated and Drivers, Pressures, Impacts of LD and SLM assessed

 2.2.1  Conduct a participatory process with seleected resource persons and institutions:

a.) To  Map Land Use / Land Management  Systems (LUS/LMS)  subdivided into administrative units; 

b.) To assess LD and SLM at national/subnational level through a step by step review and DPSIR analysis by LUS focusing on both on-site and off-site pressure/effects and change in land use extent and/or land use intensity;

c.) To  visualize DPSIR for LUS /LMS and  identify  “hot areas”  (problems, LD) and  “bright  areas”  (solutions, SLM) that deserve in depth review and  targeted responses.

2.3 SLM Technology groups and Approaches are identified for LUS/LMS

2.3.1  To identify  and list SLM Technologies by groups and Approaches (actual and potential) to address major land degradation and land management problems in specific agroecological and socioeconomic contexts.

2.4 Knowledge management products are elaborated

2.4.1 To analyze and synthesize the findings  from 2.1.2 to 2.3.1.

2.4.2  To prepare reports and visualization materials of national/subnational assessments  (GIS tools, graphs, charts, radar diagrams, etc.)

 2.4.3  Incorporate information products in national and DS-SLM knowledge management platform

As part of Module 1: 2.5 Policy instruments and partnerships are enabled to scale out and mainstream SLM at national/subnational level

2.5.1  To conduct a review of existing policy instruments (policies, programmes and projects, incentive and financing mechanisms) integrating, or with potential to integrate, SLM implementation and scaling out.

2.5.2  To organize consultative meetings with NCPU, relevant institutions and decision makers to:

a.)  share the findings of the national/subnational assessment;

b.) to identify information collation, analysis and monitoring needs; and

c.) to define key activities for scaling out and mainstreaming and obtain feedback on possible priorities for intervention.

3.1 Priority LD issues, SLM responses and landscapes for SLM implementation are identified

3.1.1 To identify objectives and criteria for selection of landscapes including priority LD issues and SLM responses (what) and decentralised /landscape areas (where) e.g. specific LD types, SLM response measures, administrative units,  decentralized decision making units, agroecosystems,  watersheds, indigenous territories, communities, etc. and to select priority landscapes.

As part of Module 1: 3.2 Identify policy instruments and build partnerships for SLM implementation in landscapes

3.2.1 To conduct an institutional analysis to identify  potential partners (programmes, incentive mechanisms, local financing mechanisms and environmental funds) and their geographical and thematic areas of intervention  to support  implementing and scaling out of best practices. 

3.2.2  To select with stakeholders specific decentralized planning and decision making units and/or landscapes for project intervention, where the project can contribute to develop territorial SLM strategies, implement and scale out SLM practices in priority areas for intervention (e.g. watersheds to restore degraded lands and enhance resilience and/or areas of high potential to protect from potential threats). 

3.2.3 To build partnerships and define roles and responsibilities for implementing the project at subnational level  in areas of intervention of existing programmes and financing mechanisms for further mainstreaming and  scaling out SLM practices  (i.e. territorial planning processes, projects, watershed funds, microfinance institutions and programmes, etc.). 

4.1 (Sub)national assessment reviewed or refined (if needed/possible)

4.1.1  The following activities should be performed according to each country's needs and resources:

a.) To conduct a multi-sector / stakeholder awarness raising and consultation on SLM assessment and implementation, including socio-economic analysis (e.g. economic-ecological zoning).

b.) To validate and refine the assessments done at national/subnational in order to identify the key objectives and activities for SLM mainstreaming, planning, implementation and monitoring.

c.) To develop an action plan and budget within available resources (STAR + cofinancing) including activities, roles and responsibilities.

4.2 Training on LADA-WOCAT methodology is conducted

4.2.1 To conduct a training on LADA-WOCAT methods and tools to be implemented at landscape level

4.3 Land use, land degradation, land management systems, economics and livelihoods are assessed at landscape level using participatory LADA-WOCAT-DESIRE tools

4.3.1 To conduct a participatory process with local institutions, organizations, farmers associations, microenterprises, resource persons etc. to carry out the following activities:

a.) To conduct a stakeholders analysis to identify key participants

b.) To  map  Land Use/Land Management Systems (LUS/LMS map) at selected landscapes

c.) To conduct a DPSIR analysis to assess land use pressures, impacts and potential solutions

d.) To characterize and assess economic and livelihood issues at landscape level and identify priority areas for intervention

4.4 Participatory analysis of SLM options for implementation are conducted

4.4.1  To identify Technology Groups, Technologies and Approaches used in the landscape with potential to be scaled out taking into account (sub-)national and landscape strategies and targets.

4.4.2 To identify, from WOCAT database and other databases/information sources, Technologies and Approaches that could be suitable and adapted to the local context, and use them as inputs for local review of SLM practices with the identified stakeholders.

4.4.3 To conduct an in-depth documentation of SLM Technologies and Approaches for implementation in the landscape for quality review and entry into the national/global WOCAT database.

WOCAT Global SLM Database

WOCAT Global SLM Database

4.5 Socio-economic and ecological analysis of selected SLM Technologies and Approaches in the wider production systems and landscape are conducted

4.5.1 To analyze the contribution of SLM Technologies to the maintenance and provision of ecosystem services (on and off site), including productivity, resilience and sustained livelihood, in order to ensure the long-term sustainability of the benefits forecast and relevance to (sub-) national strategies.

 4.5.2 Analyze costs and benefits of the implementation of selected Ts and required Approaches, including financial, social, organizational, infrastructural and knowledge needs.

4.5.3 Determine direct financial (economic) needs at farm level for implementing selected Ts/As. 

4.5.4 To conduct a stakeholder workshop to evaluate options for SLM, selecting the most promising options and identifying the best SLM opportunities for implementation and scaling out for the different locations/landscapes, considering specific target groups/land user typologies and including biophysical and socio-economic cost-benefit and strengths/weaknesses.

4.6 Knowledge products are developed and disseminated

4.6.1 To visualize, develop and disseminate knowledge products used for communication and capacity building including summaries of best practices, action plans, presentations, written documents, videos, etc.

5.1 Constraints and needs for SLM strategies are identified

5.1.1 To summarize the Technology groups/Technologies and Approaches and conduct a SWOT analysis to identify bottlenecks, gaps and opportunities and develop recommendations for adoption and scaling out of SLM building on the results of Module 4. 

As part of Module 1: 5.2 Policy instruments and partnerships for mainstreaming and scaling out SLM at decentralized level are addressed

5.2.1 To conduct a review of existing policy instruments (policies, programmes and projects, incentive and financing mechanisms) with local authorities at decentralized units.

5.2.2 To identify and discuss with decentralized authorities and institutions opportunities to integrate the findings for SLM implementation and support for scaling out best practices (integrated systems level as well as Technologies and Approaches ) into decentralized planning and investment frameworks.

5.2.3 To establish partnerships with key institutions for scaling out best practices at decentralized levels.

5.2.4 To identify mechanisms for mainstreaming SLM through key policy instruments  (e.g. mainstreaming activities in decentralized investment frameworks, in watershed funds, etc.)

5.3 SLM strategies for the decentralized level/ landscapes are formulated

5.3.1 To conduct a stakeholder process to review qualitative and quantitative data from landscape assessments and identify/select required territorial responses (SLM strategies) in decentralized and local landscape units, using a participatory learning approach for assessment,  negotiation and planning (economic environmental zoning and priority interventions - PLUD); review of existing plans and implementation mechanisms (e.g under conventions and agriculture sectors), resulting in a SLM vision for the decentralized level area.

5.3.2 To develop a participatory SLM strategic planning  ("territorial strategy") at decentralized decision making and/or landscape units, using participatory land development tools. 

5.3.3  To organize subnational and local stakeholder workshops and/or bilateral meetings with relevant subnational and local institutions in order to integrate landscape findings and SLM strategies into decentralized, landscape planning and decentralized financing mechanisms, projects  and local management plans.

5.3.4 To provide training sessions on land use and management planning for SLM strategies and interventions.

5.3.5 To identify indicators  for monitoring progress and impacts in reversing DLDD and promoting adoption of SLM at landscape level  (and try to harmonize with UNCCD indicators).

As part of Module 1: 6.1 Partnerships for SLM implementation are operationalized

6.1.1 To develop and operationalize partnerships with extension programmes, financial institutions, incentive mechanisms, programmes and projects in order to implement and scale out best practices.

6.2 SLM best practices are implemented

6.2.1  To identify sites for implementing selected Ts&As and define how to integrate and monitor the combined effects in specific land use/management systems (identified and selected through the landscape assessments).

6.2.2 To establish demonstration sites/landscapes.

6.2.3  To provide support for SLM best practices implementation (through partnerships) and to develop activities for promoting  SLM implementation and scaling out e.g. through: a. establishing local technical assistance teams to provide support with the  SLM implementtion and scaling out, and b. organizing exchange field visits to demonstration sites with farmers and participants from similar agroecological and LUS areas.

6.2.4 To identify with local stakeholders mechanisms for wider SLM adoption by different land user typologies and for various intervention scales (i.e. a basket of options, including suitable SLM Technologies, Approaches/ support measures to overcome barriers).

6.2.5  To develop communication tools on SLM, SLM strategies and selected SLM best practices.

Use of KM platform to share information, data, tools and methods and experiences.