FAO and WOCAT, building on LADA and WOCAT-DESIRE projects and relevant experiences, have developed a ‘methodological framework for decision support for mainstreaming and scaling out SLM’ which offers a detailed description of activities, tools and methods to be used to facilitate decision-making. The framework is applied by the 15 partner countries and adapted to their particular needs.
1.1.1 To develop an operational strategy and mechanism for promoting decisions that facilitate the scaling out of SLM practices supported by mainstreaming SLM into main national decision making processes and policy instruments. Steps for the planning including consultation with FAO-WOCAT, may include:
a.) To identify national SLM objectives, barriers, impacts to achieve, and opportunities for scaling out SLM practices in line with existing national strategies and priorities and targets.
b.) To conduct a preliminary survey of existing key decision making processes, policy instruments and potential partners that shall be targeted and integrated in the DS-SLM project implementation in order to mainstream SLM at all levels within: 1. Policies and strategies; 2. Programmes and projects; 3. Financing and incentive mechanisms; 4. Territorial planning; and 5. Local decision-making processes.
c.) To outline a general strategy showing HOW, WHO, WHERE and WHAT could be done for each level of intervention, including the scope of project interventions at different levels, the scale and objectives of land use assessments, stakeholders to be involved, potential partnerships and expected results (according to national context, baseline and project resources of each country).
1.1.2 To outline a general strategy showing HOW, WHO, WHERE and WHAT could be done for each level of intervention, including the scope of project interventions at different levels, the scale and objectives of land use assessments, stakeholders to be involved, potential partnerships and expected results (according to national context, baseline and project resources of each country).
1.2.1 National Inception Workshop providing an overview of existing tools and methods and identification of partners.
1.2.2 The implementation of the operational strategy is conducted throughout the project , mainly trough setting up partnerships with policy instruments, strategies, programmes and financing mechanisms at each level of intervention (national level, landscape level). See results in section 2.5, 5.2, and 6.1.
1.3.1 To formulate a strategy for wider scaling out of selected best SLM practices
1.3.2 To elaborate a programme/ project proposals portfolio for further implementation and scaling out and mainstreaming activities
1.3.3 To organize a subnational meeting or workshop with selected subregional institutions with the following objectives:
a.) To provide a synthesis of the DS-SLM project findings.
b.) To identify how to further integrate assessment results into national and subnational level policy instruments for scaling out practices and mainstreaming SLM.
c.) To formulate a strategy for wider scaling out.
1.4.1 To establish partnerships with key national and territorial institutions for scaling out best SLM practices and mainstreaming SLM into national and territorial planning processes, strategies, programmes, projects, incentive and financing mechanisms, microfinance mechanisms, etc.
2.1.1 To prepare training materials and organise and conduct a regional or national technical training on LADA -WOCAT and other relevant tools and methods, with support as required from the regional and global level.
2.1.2 To identify existing national information/ material (LUS maps, land cover maps, statistics, data, tools and case studies/experiences relevant to DLDD, LUS/LMS) and to identify needs and gaps at national and subnational levels.
2.2.1 Conduct a participatory process with seleected resource persons and institutions:
a.) To Map Land Use / Land Management Systems (LUS/LMS) subdivided into administrative units;
b.) To assess LD and SLM at national/subnational level through a step by step review and DPSIR analysis by LUS focusing on both on-site and off-site pressure/effects and change in land use extent and/or land use intensity;
c.) To visualize DPSIR for LUS /LMS and identify “hot areas” (problems, LD) and “bright areas” (solutions, SLM) that deserve in depth review and targeted responses.
2.3.1 To identify and list SLM Technologies by groups and Approaches (actual and potential) to address major land degradation and land management problems in specific agroecological and socioeconomic contexts.
2.4.1 To analyze and synthesize the findings from 2.1.2 to 2.3.1.
2.4.2 To prepare reports and visualization materials of national/subnational assessments (GIS tools, graphs, charts, radar diagrams, etc.)
2.4.3 Incorporate information products in national and DS-SLM knowledge management platform
2.5.1 To conduct a review of existing policy instruments (policies, programmes and projects, incentive and financing mechanisms) integrating, or with potential to integrate, SLM implementation and scaling out.
2.5.2 To organize consultative meetings with NCPU, relevant institutions and decision makers to:
a.) share the findings of the national/subnational assessment;
b.) to identify information collation, analysis and monitoring needs; and
c.) to define key activities for scaling out and mainstreaming and obtain feedback on possible priorities for intervention.
3.1.1 To identify objectives and criteria for selection of landscapes including priority LD issues and SLM responses (what) and decentralised /landscape areas (where) e.g. specific LD types, SLM response measures, administrative units, decentralized decision making units, agroecosystems, watersheds, indigenous territories, communities, etc. and to select priority landscapes.
3.2.1 To conduct an institutional analysis to identify potential partners (programmes, incentive mechanisms, local financing mechanisms and environmental funds) and their geographical and thematic areas of intervention to support implementing and scaling out of best practices.
3.2.2 To select with stakeholders specific decentralized planning and decision making units and/or landscapes for project intervention, where the project can contribute to develop territorial SLM strategies, implement and scale out SLM practices in priority areas for intervention (e.g. watersheds to restore degraded lands and enhance resilience and/or areas of high potential to protect from potential threats).
3.2.3 To build partnerships and define roles and responsibilities for implementing the project at subnational level in areas of intervention of existing programmes and financing mechanisms for further mainstreaming and scaling out SLM practices (i.e. territorial planning processes, projects, watershed funds, microfinance institutions and programmes, etc.).
4.1.1 The following activities should be performed according to each country's needs and resources:
a.) To conduct a multi-sector / stakeholder awarness raising and consultation on SLM assessment and implementation, including socio-economic analysis (e.g. economic-ecological zoning).
b.) To validate and refine the assessments done at national/subnational in order to identify the key objectives and activities for SLM mainstreaming, planning, implementation and monitoring.
c.) To develop an action plan and budget within available resources (STAR + cofinancing) including activities, roles and responsibilities.
4.2.1 To conduct a training on LADA-WOCAT methods and tools to be implemented at landscape level
4.3.1 To conduct a participatory process with local institutions, organizations, farmers associations, microenterprises, resource persons etc. to carry out the following activities:
a.) To conduct a stakeholders analysis to identify key participants
b.) To map Land Use/Land Management Systems (LUS/LMS map) at selected landscapes
c.) To conduct a DPSIR analysis to assess land use pressures, impacts and potential solutions
d.) To characterize and assess economic and livelihood issues at landscape level and identify priority areas for intervention
4.4.1 To identify Technology Groups, Technologies and Approaches used in the landscape with potential to be scaled out taking into account (sub-)national and landscape strategies and targets.
4.4.2 To identify, from WOCAT database and other databases/information sources, Technologies and Approaches that could be suitable and adapted to the local context, and use them as inputs for local review of SLM practices with the identified stakeholders.
4.4.3 To conduct an in-depth documentation of SLM Technologies and Approaches for implementation in the landscape for quality review and entry into the national/global WOCAT database.
4.5.1 To analyze the contribution of SLM Technologies to the maintenance and provision of ecosystem services (on and off site), including productivity, resilience and sustained livelihood, in order to ensure the long-term sustainability of the benefits forecast and relevance to (sub-) national strategies.
4.5.2 Analyze costs and benefits of the implementation of selected Ts and required Approaches, including financial, social, organizational, infrastructural and knowledge needs.
4.5.3 Determine direct financial (economic) needs at farm level for implementing selected Ts/As.
4.5.4 To conduct a stakeholder workshop to evaluate options for SLM, selecting the most promising options and identifying the best SLM opportunities for implementation and scaling out for the different locations/landscapes, considering specific target groups/land user typologies and including biophysical and socio-economic cost-benefit and strengths/weaknesses.
4.6.1 To visualize, develop and disseminate knowledge products used for communication and capacity building including summaries of best practices, action plans, presentations, written documents, videos, etc.
5.1.1 To summarize the Technology groups/Technologies and Approaches and conduct a SWOT analysis to identify bottlenecks, gaps and opportunities and develop recommendations for adoption and scaling out of SLM building on the results of Module 4.
5.2.1 To conduct a review of existing policy instruments (policies, programmes and projects, incentive and financing mechanisms) with local authorities at decentralized units.
5.2.2 To identify and discuss with decentralized authorities and institutions opportunities to integrate the findings for SLM implementation and support for scaling out best practices (integrated systems level as well as Technologies and Approaches ) into decentralized planning and investment frameworks.
5.2.3 To establish partnerships with key institutions for scaling out best practices at decentralized levels.
5.2.4 To identify mechanisms for mainstreaming SLM through key policy instruments (e.g. mainstreaming activities in decentralized investment frameworks, in watershed funds, etc.)
5.3.1 To conduct a stakeholder process to review qualitative and quantitative data from landscape assessments and identify/select required territorial responses (SLM strategies) in decentralized and local landscape units, using a participatory learning approach for assessment, negotiation and planning (economic environmental zoning and priority interventions - PLUD); review of existing plans and implementation mechanisms (e.g under conventions and agriculture sectors), resulting in a SLM vision for the decentralized level area.
5.3.2 To develop a participatory SLM strategic planning ("territorial strategy") at decentralized decision making and/or landscape units, using participatory land development tools.
5.3.3 To organize subnational and local stakeholder workshops and/or bilateral meetings with relevant subnational and local institutions in order to integrate landscape findings and SLM strategies into decentralized, landscape planning and decentralized financing mechanisms, projects and local management plans.
5.3.4 To provide training sessions on land use and management planning for SLM strategies and interventions.
5.3.5 To identify indicators for monitoring progress and impacts in reversing DLDD and promoting adoption of SLM at landscape level (and try to harmonize with UNCCD indicators).
6.1.1 To develop and operationalize partnerships with extension programmes, financial institutions, incentive mechanisms, programmes and projects in order to implement and scale out best practices.
6.2.1 To identify sites for implementing selected Ts&As and define how to integrate and monitor the combined effects in specific land use/management systems (identified and selected through the landscape assessments).
6.2.2 To establish demonstration sites/landscapes.
6.2.3 To provide support for SLM best practices implementation (through partnerships) and to develop activities for promoting SLM implementation and scaling out e.g. through: a. establishing local technical assistance teams to provide support with the SLM implementtion and scaling out, and b. organizing exchange field visits to demonstration sites with farmers and participants from similar agroecological and LUS areas.
6.2.4 To identify with local stakeholders mechanisms for wider SLM adoption by different land user typologies and for various intervention scales (i.e. a basket of options, including suitable SLM Technologies, Approaches/ support measures to overcome barriers).
6.2.5 To develop communication tools on SLM, SLM strategies and selected SLM best practices.
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